HST 565 “Medical Imaging Sciences and Applications” – Fall 2020

Course Directors: Georges El Fakhri, PhD ; Moses Q. Wilks, PhD

HST.565; Tue, Thu 4:30pm-6:00pm, starting September 1
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This Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology course covers the biophysical, biomedical, mathematical and instrumentation basics of positron emission tomography (PET), x-ray and computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), single photon emission tomography (SPECT), optical imaging and ultrasound. Topics include particles and photon interactions, nuclear counting statistics, gamma cameras, and computed tomography as it pertains to SPECT and PET (including PET-CT, PET-MR, time-of-flight PET), MR physics and various sequences, Optical and Ultrasound physics foundations for imaging. Discusses the clinical applications of PET and MR in molecular imaging of the brain, the heart, and cancer and the role of AI in medical imaging. Includes medical demonstration lectures of SPECT, PET-CT and PET-MR imaging at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Considers the ways in which imaging techniques are rooted in physics, engineering, and mathematics as well as their respective role in anatomic and physiologic/molecular imaging.

Virtual EditionZoom link

Course Policies PDF

Syllabus PDF

Syllabus (w/calendar events)

Zoom: https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Week

Date

Suggested Literature

Description

1

Tues 9/1/2020

Add to Calendar 09/01/2020 16:30 09/01/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Introduction to molecular imaging Introduction to molecular imaging https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

  SC12 Chp. 1, 15

Introduction to molecular imaging

(Georges El Fakhri)

Covers types of imaging modalities used in medicine (MRI, US, PET, SPECT, CT) providing an overview of the applications in medical imaging and how they complement each other (i.e. what does MRI do that CT does not and v.v., what does PET do and SPECT cannot and v.v.; these are covered at an application level, where advantages/disadvantages are mentioned from a pathology detection perspective).

1

Thur 9/3/2020

Add to Calendar 09/03/2020 16:30 09/03/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Radioactive Decay, Particle Interactions, Dose and Exposure/span> Radioactive Decay, Particle Interactions, Dose and Exposure https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

SC12 Chp. 3, 4, 6

Radioactive Decay, Particle Interactions, Dose and Exposure  

(Moses Wilks)

Covers the basics of nuclear physics, and implications from exposure to radiation.

2

Tues 9/8/2020

Add to Calendar 09/08/2020 16:30 09/08/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Radiation detectors, Counting Statistics I Radiation detectors, Counting Statistics I https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

SC12 Chp. 13, 14

Radiation detectors, Counting Statistics I

(Lisa Blackberg)

Covers the physics of radiation detection and different types of detectors (gas, semiconductors and scintillators), as well as the basics of counting statistics.

2

Thur 9/10/2020

Add to Calendar 09/10/2020 16:30 09/10/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Radiation detectors, Counting Statistics II Radiation detectors, Counting Statistics II https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

SC12 Chp. 13, 14

Radiation detectors, Counting Statistics II

(Lisa Blackberg)

Covers types of radiation detector systems (PMT, monolithic crystals, solid state, pixelated crystals) and their applications to imaging systems, event positioning algorithms (advantages and disadvantages, and possibility for improvement), how the physical 222properties and (mechanical) design of crystals provides potential for the improvement of image quality.

3

Tues 9/15/2020

Add to Calendar 09/15/2020 16:30 09/15/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Gamma Camera Imaging Gamma Camera Imaging https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

SC12 Chp. 13, 14

Gamma Camera Imaging

(Hamid Sabet)

Covers topics in transmission tomography imaging, such as the mathematics of computed tomography (parallel, fan-beam, and cone-beam integral transforms), analytic reconstruction algorithms (FPB, FBP, etc.).

3

Thur 9/17/2020

Add to Calendar 09/17/2020 16:30 09/17/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Introduction to Tomographic Imaging Introduction to Tomographic Imaging https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

SC12 Chp. 16

Introduction to Tomographic Imaging

(Moses Wilks)

Covers topics in transmission tomography imaging, including the mathematics revolving around cone-beam integral transforms, types of acquisition (circular, spiral), and an introduction to the interior problem in CT.

4

Tues 9/22/2020

Add to Calendar 09/22/2020 16:30 09/22/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 Problem Set I Review of Problem Set I https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

 

Problem Set I

(Moses Wilks)

Review of problem set 1

4

Thur 9/24/2020

Add to Calendar 09/24/2020 16:30 09/24/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

SC12 Chp. 17, MW04 Chps. 7 & 22,

Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography

(Hamid Sabet)

Covers topics in SPECT acquisition such as artifacts during acquisition (e.g. center-of-rotation artifacts), and principles of collimation (compatibility with radiotracer, collimator-detector response compensation including intrinsic response, geometric response, and septal penetration/scatter response), flood-field uniformity correction, attenuation correction, scatter correction, and partial voluming.

5

Tues 9/29/2020

Add to Calendar 09/29/2020 16:30 09/29/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Positron Emission Tomography I Positron Emission Tomography I https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

SC12 Chp. 18

Positron Emission Tomography I

(Yoann Petibon)

Topics on the fundamentals of Positron Emission Tomography.

 

5

Thur 10/1/2020

Add to Calendar 10/01/2020 16:30 10/01/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Positron Emission Tomography II Positron Emission Tomography II https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

SC12 Chp. 18

Positron Emission Tomography II

(Georges El Fakhri)

 

Expanded topics on PET Imaging Acquisition and Corrections

6

Tues 10/6/2020

Add to Calendar 10/06/2020 16:30 10/06/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: CT: Analog, Digital, Dual Energy, and Proton CT: Analog, Digital, Dual Energy, and Proton https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

SC12 Chp. 21

CT: Analog, Digital, Dual Energy, and Proton

(Bill Worstell)

Covers physical principles of X-ray computed tomography (Hounsfield units, types of acquisitions, detectors, etc.), artifacts arising from the physics of CT (beam hardening, low-dose), and artifact correction methods

6

Thur 10/8/2020

Add to Calendar 10/08/2020 16:30 10/08/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 Problem Set II Review of Problem Set II https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

 

Problem Set II

(Staff)

Review of problem set 2

7

Tues 10/13/2020

Add to Calendar 10/13/2020 16:30 10/13/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Kinetic Modeling of Physiologic Data I Kinetic Modeling of Physiologic Data I https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Handouts

Kinetic Modeling of Physiologic Data I

(Marc Normandin)

Covers compartmental modeling kinetics, applications to PET and SPECT imaging

7

Thur 10/15/2020

Add to Calendar 10/15/2020 16:30 10/15/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Kinetic Modeling of Physiologic Data II Kinetic Modeling of Physiologic Data II https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Handouts

Kinetic Modeling of Physiologic Data II

(Marc Normandin)

Covers compartmental modeling kinetics, applications to PET and SPECT imaging

8

Tue 10/20/2020

Add to Calendar 10/20/2020 16:30 10/20/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture:Midterm Exam Midterm Exam https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

 

Midterm Exam

(Staff)

Covers topics from lectures up to 10/6/2020

8

Thurs 10/22/2020

Add to Calendar 10/22/2020 16:30 10/22/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Magnetic Resonance Imaging I Magnetic Resonance Imaging I https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Handouts

Magnetic Resonance Imaging I

(Jonghye Woo)

Covers topics in MR physics (magnetization, relaxation, Bloch equations), signal detection concepts, basics of multi-dimensional MR Imaging (slice selection, phase and frequency encoding).

9

Tues 10/27/2020

Add to Calendar 10/27/2020 16:30 10/27/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Magnetic Resonance Imaging II Magnetic Resonance Imaging II https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

ZPL99 JP10 DWM07

Magnetic Resonance Imaging II

(Chao Ma)

Covers topics on interpretation of k-space, signal in k-space, sampling and aliasing, signal/contrast/noise, and basics of acquisition (spin echo, gradient echo).

9

Thur 10/29/2019

Add to Calendar 10/29/2020 16:30 10/29/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Iterative Tomographic Reconstruction Iterative Tomographic Reconstruction https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Handouts

Iterative Tomographic Reconstruction

(Quanzheng Li)

 

Covers the Bayesian framework under which iterative tomographic reconstruction is interpreted (this includes a detailed explanation of Expectation Maximization), followed by a presentation of the MLEM algorithm, and continued by an introduction to maximum a posteriori (MAP) methods of image reconstruction (modeling of the prior distribution, anatomical priors, bias on the solution, penalty/regularization term in optimization).

10

Tues 11/3/2020

Add to Calendar 11/03/2020 16:30 11/03/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Clinical PET and SPECT Clinical PET and SPECT https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Handouts

Clinical PET and SPECT

(Thomas Ng)

 

Clinical aspects of PET and SPECT imaging.

 

10

Thur 11/5/2020

Add to Calendar 11/05/2020 16:30 11/05/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 Problem Set III Review of Problem Set III https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

 

Problem Set III

(Staff)

Review of problem set 3

11

Tues 11/10/2020

Add to Calendar 11/10/2020 16:30 11/10/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Radiochemistry for Molecular Imaging I Radiochemistry for Molecular Imaging I https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Handouts

Radiochemistry for Molecular Imaging I

(Pedro Brugarolas)

Covers fundamentals of radiochemistry.

11

Thur 11/12/2019

Add to Calendar 11/12/2020 16:30 11/12/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Radiochemistry for Molecular Imaging II Radiochemistry for Molecular Imaging II https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Handouts

Radiochemistry for Molecular Imaging II

(Pedro Brugarolas)

Covers a survey of radiochemistry techniques with regards to specific radiotracers and their clinical/experimental applications.

12

Tues 11/17/2020

Add to Calendar 11/17/2020 16:30 11/17/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Ultrasound Imaging Ultrasound Imaging https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Handouts

Ultrasound Imaging

(Viksit Kumar)

 

Topics in ultrasound elastography will be discussed, the physical basis and clinical context in which this technology is applied, through the framework of precision medicine for diffuse liver disease.

 

 

12

Thur 11/19/2020

Add to Calendar 11/19/2020 16:30 11/19/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Optical Imaging and Immunotherapy Optical Imaging and Immunotherapy https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Handouts

Optical Imaging and Immunotherapy

(Satoshi Kashiwagi)

Covers topics in optical fluorescence imaging and immunotherapy using near-infrared fluorescence imaging devices and targeted contrast agents.

13

Tues 11/24/2020

 

Thanksgiving (Holiday)

13

Thur 11/26/2020

 

Thanksgiving (Holiday)

14

Tues 12/1/2020

Add to Calendar 12/01/2020 16:30 12/01/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Nanomedicine: From Small Molecules to Nanoparticles Nanomedicine: From Small Molecules to Nanoparticles https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

Handouts

Nanomedicine: From Small Molecules to Nanoparticles

(Kai Bao and Homan Kang)

Covers topics in design and applications of targeted contrast agents ranging from small molecules to nanoparticles for nanomedicine and image-guided surgery.

14

 

 

Thurs 12/3/2020

Add to Calendar 12/03/2020 16:30 12/03/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 lecture: Multi-modality/Hybrid Imaging Multi-modality/Hybrid Imaging https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

 

Multi-modality/Hybrid Imaging

(Moses Wilks)

Covers topics in multi-modality imaging such as challenges in simultaneous acquisition (providing an overview of state of the art image registration methods that may be used to fuse the modalities), and hybrid imaging for PET/MR and PET/CT comparing advances in each modality.

14

Tues 12/8/2020

Add to Calendar 12/08/2020 16:30 12/08/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 Problem Set IV Review of Problem Set IV https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

 

Problem Set IV

(Staff)

Review of Problem Set IV

16

Tues 12/15/2020

Add to Calendar 12/15/2020 16:30 12/15/2020 18:00 America/New_York HST 565 Final Exam Final Exam https://partners.zoom.us/j/92124633703?pwd=elErMmZIbjc5QktDNHpkN1RaNU9qZz09

 

Final Exam

(Staff)

 

Covers material from all lectures

Texts

  • SC12: Simon Cherry, Physics in Nuclear Medicine, 2012
  • MW04: Miles Wernick, Emission Tomography: The Fundamentals of PET and SPECT, 2004
  • ZPL99: Zhi-Pei Liang, Paul C. Lauterbur, Principles of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Signal Processing Perspective, 1999
  • JP10: Jerry Prince, Jonathan Links, Medical Imaging Signals and Systems, 2010
  • DWM07: DW McRobbie, EA Moore, MJ Graves, MR Prince, MRI from Picture to Proton, 2007